In aeronauticsair brakes or speed brakes are a type of flight control surfaces used on an aircraft to increase drag or increase the angle of approach during landing. Air brakes differ from spoilers in that air brakes are designed to increase drag while making little change to liftwhereas spoilers reduce the lift-to-drag ratio and require a higher angle of attack to maintain lift, resulting in a higher stall speed.
The earliest known air brake was developed in and deployed on the wing support struts. More modern gliders use air brakes which may spoil lift as well as increase drag, dependent on where they are positioned. Often, characteristics of both spoilers and air brakes are desirable and are combined - most modern airliner jets feature combined spoiler and air brake controls. On landing, the deployment of these spoilers "lift dumpers" causes a dramatic loss of lift and hence the weight of the aircraft is transferred from the wings to the undercarriage, allowing the wheels to be mechanically braked with much less chance of skidding.
In addition, the form drag created by the spoilers directly assists the braking effect. Reverse thrust is also used to help slow the aircraft after landing. Virtually all jet powered aircraft have an air brake or, in the case of most airliners, lift spoilers that also act as air brakes. Propeller driven aircraft benefit from the natural braking effect of the propeller when the engine is throttled back, but jet powered aircraft have no such innate braking effect and must use air brakes to control descent speed.
The Blackburn Buccaneer naval strike aircraft designed in the s had a tail cone that was split and could be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake. It also helped to reduce the length of the aircraft in the confined space on an aircraft carrier.
An air brake is a panel conforming the shape of an aircraft that can be opened with hydraulic pressure in order to create drag, similar to spoilers which are on the edges of the aircraft wings and open in an upward position forcing the plane towards the ground.
Lift dumpers, a type of air brake, are mounted on the top of a fuselage. When the panel is opened, it acts as a small spoiler, gently pushing the aircraft down. Flaps also increase drag and decrease airspeed, but are primarily for reducing the stall speedallowing the aircraft to land at a slower speed. Following the invention of powered flightand the rapid development of fixed-wing aircraft in the early 20th century, designers endeavoured for several decades to make airplanes faster than before.
A universal goal for all manufacturers for some time, was to reach the speed of sound supersonic speedapproximately miles per hour mph. Apart from the challenge of developing an engine capable of producing such a speed, and preventing the aircraft from breaking apart under the stress, one major concern was how to keep the aircraft in stable flight and then return it to a normal flying speed using a stronger braking system.
In the s, air brake systems were still using simple flaps that were manually controlled by a lever in the cockpit, with mechanical devices running through the wings. The concept of fuselage-mounted air brakes, or speed brakes, spread throughout the s, eventually becoming more commonplace in the s.
In the s, pilots would land with the nose of the plane tilted upwards at a degree angle for short landings in order to effect rapid deceleration. With this method, "the drag or resistance is increased by percent, and the distance required to land is cut down to one third of the usual stopping distance".
This led to the development of a new air braking system with additional flaps, mounted on the wing, that opened in two directions simultaneously. This wing-mounted design allowed the effective surface area of the flaps to be increased by percent for landing, producing substantially more drag than the conceptual fuselage design and resulting in a sharper reduction in air speed.
This meant that the pilot was able to see the landing strip in front of the aircraft as there was no longer the need to tilt the nose upwards at a steep angle at close to stalling speeds. The rate of deceleration and foot pounds of force applied to each brake is dependent upon where the brake is located. Upper and lower surface flaps positioned along the wings provide the steadiest braking curve comparing force applied against deceleration ratebut the flaps are subjected to greater stresses at theoretically higher speeds.
Spoilers on the wings experience less force, but cannot slow down the aircraft at higher speeds. Brake plates mounted on the fuselage of an aircraft experience much more force applied per square inch but they can also reduce the speed of the aircraft far more effectively at higher speeds when used with some form of wing-mounted assisting brake.F inspired.
F-16 Fighting Falcon
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DCS: F-16C Viper
What you and your team have produced is remarkable. You truly deserve to succeed in this life. There is no way on God's earth would I have been able to fabricate what you have. The quality of workmanship is very impressive. Real craftsmanship. The smooth finish is excellent. Highly recommend for those who don't have or want to commit a number of months to building pit. Great design, just ready to fly and have fun with. Will burn a lot of Jet Fuel in the future with this simulator.
It's very close to the real fighter. Brilliant, Brilliant, Fantastic, Exorbitant what I can say right now!!!!F-16C Viper: Learning VFR Approach & Landing - DCS WORLD
I am pleased-many thanks to you that you can create something like that and make dreams comes true! I took now the first flights, flown on my new ACES seat and it feels wonderful to be jumped toward the reality a large piece - it makes enormous fun and I am impressed. The seat is just super and the excellent transport packaging I have photographed to use it as a good example for the future.
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Beesty, United Kingdom The quality of workmanship is very impressive.The Grumman F Tomcat is an American supersonictwin-enginetwo-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
It was the first such U. The F was the first of the American Teen Series fighters, which were designed incorporating air combat experience against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War. The F first flew on 21 December and made its first deployment in with the U.
F-16C Saitek X55 Profile - V3
The F served as the U. Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighterfleet defense interceptorand tactical aerial reconnaissance platform into the s. Iranian Fs reportedly shot down at least Iraqi aircraft during the war, while only 12 to 16 Tomcats were lost; at least half of these losses were due to accidents. The Tomcat was retired by U. Beginning in the late s, the U.
Navy sought a long-range, high-endurance interceptor to defend its carrier battle groups against long-range anti-ship missiles launched from the jet bombers and submarines of the Soviet Union.
The U. McNamara wanted "joint" solutions to service aircraft needs to reduce development costs and had already directed the Air Force to buy the F-4 Phantom II, which was developed for the Navy and Marine Corps. Weight and performance issues plagued the U. With the FB program in distress, Grumman began studying improvements and alternatives. Inthe Navy awarded Grumman a contract to begin studying advanced fighter designs. Grumman narrowed down these designs to its design.
ConnollyDeputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air Warfare, flew the developmental FA variant on a flight and discovered that it had difficulty going supersonic and had poor carrier landing characteristics. He later testified before Congress about his concerns against the official U. Department of the Navy position and, in MayCongress stopped funding for the FB, allowing the Navy to pursue an answer tailored to its requirements. The Navy studied the need for VFAXan additional fighter that was more agile than the F-4 Phantom for air-combat and ground-attack roles.
The company continued to refine the design into VFX called for a tandem two-seat, twin-engined air-to-air fighter with a maximum speed of Mach 2. It would also have a built-in M61 Vulcan cannon and a secondary close air support role. McDonnell Douglas and Grumman were selected as finalists in December Grumman was selected for the contract award in January Upon winning the contract for the F, Grumman greatly expanded its CalvertonLong Island, New York facility for evaluating the aircraft.
Much of the testing, including the first of many compressor stalls and multiple ejections, took place over Long Island Sound. In order to save time and forestall interference from Secretary McNamara, the Navy skipped the prototype phase and jumped directly to full-scale development; the Air Force took a similar approach with its F The Marine Corps pulled out of any procurement when the development of the stores' management system for ground attack munitions was not pursued.
An air-to-ground capability was not developed until the s. Firing trials involved launches against simulated targets of various types, from cruise missiles to high-flying bombers. Another unusual test was made on 22 Novemberwhen six missiles were fired within 38 seconds at Mach 0.
With time, the early versions of all the missiles were replaced by more advanced versions, especially with the move to full solid-state electronics that allowed better reliability, better ECCM and more space for the rocket engine.Any DCS World keys purchased from other sources are invalid and are simply trying to re-sell keys that are bound to other users or purchased through fraud.
If you purchase DCS World keys from these sites, we cannot help you. We suggest you contact these sites for a refund. User Name. Remember Me? Dear users! Inert Munitions. Hornet doesn't have proper Mission Dawn Raiders. Last Page. Sticky: Hornet Mini-Updates 1 2 Congratulations ED! I think I've managed to break my F Losing Lock. Startup is kind of simple in Hornet C. My targeting pod aiming sucks. Engines out and UHF radio. Walleye questions. Question about usable rockets.
Landing gear coming down on its own. F10 Map to Waypoint Data. F18, AA refueling. No collision with the basket after im ready to refuel. Mark This Forum Read. View Parent Forum. Search this Forum : Advanced Search. Mark Forums Read. Wish List. Controller Questions and Bugs. Missions and Campaigns. Mission Dawn Raiders by ster PM. Page 1 of Forum Tools. Last Post. Last Page Vitormouraa.
Last Page Wags. Hours Raisuli. Losing Lock FlyBoyd. Engines out and UHF radio huppel.DCS Store. The FC Fighting Falconoften called the Viperis a single-engine multi-role fighter jet airplane. Despite the "F" fighter designation, it is designed for both air-to-air and air-to-ground missions and can use an array of weapons and sensors; built into the Viper is a 20mm cannon as well as a multifunction radar.
The Fighting Falcon's hands on throttle and stick HOTAS system is designed to allow the pilot to manipulate important avionics functions without releasing the hands from the throttle or control stick. This section will provide a summarized description of all HOTAS controls - detailed functionality will be described in other appropriate sections.
The stick is mostly stationary and uses pressure sensitivity to be manipulated; it does, however, move a small physical distance to give tactile movement response to the pilot. The throttle for the F is mounted on the left side, thought it is not rail-mounted to the side of the fuselage as its appearance would suggest. Instead the throttle pivots on its mounted location to the panel. The FC has multiple flight control surfaces for maneuvering the aircraft. It has a "fly-by-wire" FBW system, which, opposed to a traditional mechanical or "direct" control system, the inputs given by the cockpit controls are inputted to a computer which then decides what controls to move in order to accomplish the desired maneuver.
The FLCS also moves surfaces as a function of the angle of attack to provide the best control. The control stick controls the stabilators, ailerons, and rudder and the rudder pedals control the rudder.
The control stick mainly focuses on using force sensing for feedback, not to be confused for force feedback. The speedbrake is a set of four retractable flaps on the back of the aircraft on either side of the engine, used to provide drag to decelerate faster. It is activated via the speed brake switch on the throttle. There are three positions - aft is momentary, the others are permanent.
With weight off wheels, it is disengaged. It automatically engages upon there being weight on wheels. NWS is disengaged manually via the paddle switch on the stick. The hands on throttle and stick HOTAS system of the aircraft is also used for manipulating these systems, which is detailed in its own section and the sections relevant to specific HOTAS uses. The MFDs can display various software pages to manipulate the aircraft's avionics. These three pages always occupy the bottom center three pushbutton areas.
In addition to these, a universal declutter DCLT button is provided, which will declutter the symbology depending on the page, and a SWAP button, which simply swaps the two MFD's quick access pages and selected page. Selecting any of the three pushbuttons once they have already been selected prompts the main page menu. Any page can then be selected and will be filled at that pushbutton. That page can then be selected by either pressing the corresponding pushbutton or using the Display Management Switch DMS on the stick, and it will be highlighted.
The F avionics display most radar target data as "trackfiles" - single objects in the air the computer determines to exist based on the return of one or more raw radar contacts. Trackfiles are represented by a triangle symbol, with a stem coming out of one corner of the trackfile to indicate its track velocity across the ground.
Underneath the trackfile is displayed its altitude in thousands of feet. The Fire Control Radar page is presented in an azimuth over range format with the aircraft at the bottom center of the display. The range axis is displayed in a vertical format, where higher range is higher on the physical MFD screen.
Range While Search RWS provides the largest scan volume selection available and is designed for surveillance of a large area. Situational Awareness Mode SAM is a Range While Search function which allows for a contact to be designated, which will then center the scan azimuth on it and display it as a trackfile as opposed to a raw contact. Weapon guidance is available in SAM mode on the designated trackfile; as the radar continues to scan it will continue to display other raw contacts.
The cursor is then slaved onto the trackfile. These weapons are to be included as these categories.Home Discussions Workshop Market Broadcasts. Change language. Install Steam. Store Page. Global Achievements. A few hours ago I was trying to do my first A2A refueling attempt, using the Mirage. Got close to the tanker, on-speed, on-height, right frequency, "Request pre-contact" and I read in the forums that you need to be stable and very close to the tanker before it clears contact and decides to deploy the pipeline, but I tried about 20 positions on both wings, ranging from a conservative distance slightly below the tanker to literally being two meters away from it and nothing ever happened.
Is there anything that I could've been doing wrong? Showing 1 - 8 of 8 comments. Originally posted by fikmeinshizer :. Usually for this you have to get closer bro. A bit behind where the bucket is supposed to come out. Last edited by dan ; 11 Jan am. Originally posted by dan :. When he asks to return to pre-contact, you'll have to get in position and ask again to refuel. He'll either deploy the basket or tell you to return to pre-contact.
Were you requesting to refuel each time you changed position? Also, just to make sure Originally posted by spike :. Vanhala View Profile View Posts.
S-3, aye? It is probe-'n'-drogue. KC has two versions, one is and one is not. To clarify: Firstly if you call in and the tanker replies "return pre-contact" then you are not in position. Adjust your position and call again. Eventually he will reply "Cleared Contact". This is where the pipe will become usable.
Until you are in almost perfect position they simply tell you to move. You also need to keep calling until you are cleared. Secondly you need to be using the right tanker for the job. Basket or Probe and Drogue Tankers are used mostly by the Navy.
You'll feel like you are too close. In the F and F you will actually be below the tanker and feel like it's about to land on your head. Hope that helps some more. Per page: 15 30 Date Posted: 10 Jan pm.
Posts: 8. Discussions Rules and Guidelines.However, there were certain maneuvers that were prohibited because it would have been too dangerous. Most of them make sense when you think about it.
Of course, there was always a Maverick who wanted to push the envelope to see what the jet could do. Therefore, there is one thing I want to make abundantly clear: I can neither confirm nor deny that I have been in an F Tomcat during any of these situations!
F-16C Profile for T.16000M HOTAS v1.3 *Updated*
Navy flight veteran Lt. Departure from controlled flight is not where you want to be in any aircraft, much less the F Unless you were a test pilot performing a test maneuver under specific conditions, it was probably best to not try and put the Tomcat intentionally into a spin, while it was also against the rules. The Tomcat was an honest aircraft with moderate departure resistance, but I think we all learned our lesson from the Top Gun scene where Maverick and Goose get into a flat spin headed out to sea.
While the scene was not completely accurate, it did emphasize how critical and challenging recovery from a spin could be. There are different types of spins and different ways to recover from them, but there was no true recovery when the Tomcat entered into a fully developed flat spin. To get the Tomcat into a fully developed flat spin would have meant the pilot had made sustained and unnatural control inputs, or the aircraft malfunctioned and created an uncorrectable aerodynamic imbalance.
The most likely reason was a combination of the two and that was hopefully a very rare occurrence. Getting into a flat spin was difficult to do even while in the simulator. A flat spin was characterized by three things: a flat aircraft attitude meaning 10 degrees nose down with no pitch or roll oscillations, steadily increasing yaw rate think aircraft spinning left or rightand high longitudinal acceleration.
The eyeball out G also made it difficult for the aircrew to get into a good body position and command the ejection. If the aircrew could identify that they were in a flat spin by all three of these characteristics—the only remaining course of action was to eject. However, one final step was for the RIO to jettison the canopy before commanding the ejection. This would give the canopy enough time to separate from the aircraft and clear the path for the ejection seats.
Remember, the aircraft is falling straight down, so jettisoning the canopy first was paramount to give it time to clear. This is why Goose died in Top Gun. When the ejection handle was pulled, the canopy did not clear and the RIO—always first in the ejection sequence—did not have a clear path upwards.
A bugout is when the pilot performs a maximum thrust acceleration followed by a pushover in an effort to head down to the deck as quickly as possible. In other words, moving to full throttle followed by pushing the stick forward to go down. The maneuver is used when trying to get away from a threat fighter and the Tomcat was fast enough that bugging out was a viable tactic.
Extended duration at zero or negative G on the aircraft, particularly while in afterburner places extreme demands on the engine fuel feed system.
The fuel floats to the top and exposes the fuel lines to air. If air is drawn into the fuel lines, particularly during afterburner operation when there is a huge demand for fuel, the result can be an afterburner blowout or even worse an engine flameout. Slats located on the leading edge of the wing and flaps located on the trailing edge of the wing change the camber of the wing.
Changing the camber helps to create more lift when the aircraft is at a slow speed, such as in the landing configuration. In the Tomcat, the AIM-9 Sidewinder was placed on Station 1 or 8which was located directly under each respective wing. One of the most dangerous situations is when a missile does not separate from the jet but the rocket motor ignites. The missile is still hanging on the aircraft with the rocket motor burning. If the AIM-9 rocket motor continued to burn but the missile never separated from the aircraft, there was the potential for burning a hole through the extended landing flaps.
Even if the missile did come off the rail, a drooping slat would probably receive some residual damage from rocket exhaust.
Additionally, since the AIM-9 is a heat-seeking missile and used in very close range, it needs to keep the seeker head as unencumbered as possible for it to acquire the target. Furthermore, to fire forward with an extended slat would probably have posed a clearance issue and in only a few instances is it tactical to fight the jet in this slow speed configuration.
While a hang fire is rare, Pete Purvis has a great story about the day he shot himself down in a F with his own AIM-7 Sparrow missile. You will have to read it for yourself, but it provides great understanding into why separation of the stores from the aircraft is so critical. Remember in the summer when you were a kid and would take the OFF bug spray can and hold it up to a lit match?