Tubli Derris is a low bush that provides insecticides against plant lice, yellow aphids, flies, caterpillars, and ticks, fleas, chicken fleas and others. This is known to be used as fish poison, as traditionally done here and in Indonesia, but this is not legal because it kills the big fishes and their offspring. Tubli is poison to cold blooded creatures like insect insects like insects and marine organisms.
Root-zone application of insecticides. By Rizal A Gatica. Just as scientist of the International Rice Research Institute IRRI have found that placing fertilizer 10 to 12 centimeters beneath the soil surface works best for rice, so they have discovered that the same practice is just as effective in the application of granular systematic insecticides. Elvis A. There are other advantages: the chemical is readily available to the roots; it is shielded from sunshine; it does not undergo volatilization; and it is not washed away by paddy water.
These conditions cannot be attained using the broadcast and spray methods. Heinrichs notes that sprayed chemicals are easily washed off plants, especially during rainy weather.
To keep insecticides on plants, a farmer has to spray more than once, thus making the spray method very costly. Similarly, the broadcast method does not provide enough protection because insecticides applied in this manner are washed away during heavy rains and floods.
Equally important, it is more economical, requiring only one application of one kilo of insecticide per hectare. In contrast, the broadcast method normally requires four to five applications, and the rate is about four kilos of insecticide per hectare. How is root zone application done? Two to three days after transplanting, insert one capsule 2. In this way, the insecticide will remain intact in the soil even if the farm is flooded.
Says Gerardo B.
This high concentration, specifically in the leaf blades, is significant because whorl maggots and leafhoppers start feeding on the leaf blades at this time. Applied at the root zone of the rice plant, the insecticide controls almost all the major rice pest, including the virus-transmitting and sap-sucking leafhopper, brown plant hopper, stem borer, and rice gall midge. The last insect is a very serious pest in Thailand, accounting for a yearly 30 percent loss in total rice production. The pest attacks growing shoots, and because it feeds inside the host plant, is poorly controlled by chemical sprays.
Another advantage of root-zone application is it lessens the quantity of insecticide in paddy water.
Plant Extracts as Natural Insecticides
This may enable farmers to raise fish like tilapia in the paddies. But the use of gelatin capsules is uneconomical and very laborious. We have tried using cut paper straw, both ends of which are sealed with paraffin when filled with insecticide. This is effective and less costly, but it is also laborious. Now, researchers apply the insecticide directly in the root zone with a machine. The same machine used by IRRI scientists for fertilizer application experiments, the applicator opens furrows, deposits insecticide or fertilizer or both in the soil, and then closes the furrows.Hi I was just wondering on what kind of farm insect did you use on your experiment?
And can Kakawate leaves be an efficient pesticide against cocolisaps? Thank you :. Any thoughts? Can i use kakawate for fleas and ticks of cats and dogs? Will it kill them? Because me and my son is having insect bites all over because of our pets. Though i regularly bathe my pets. Do we have a recommended rate of using kakawate extract in 16 litters of knapsack sprayer? This article contains a lot of useful information. Can you make me an procedural way on how to prepare madre de cacao as botanical pesticides in controll of different insect pests of eggplant.
Madre de Cacao is nitrogen-fixing tree. In some areas, it is referred to as a quick-stick due to the characteristic of growing almost right away just by cutting it and directly planting it in the ground. It is a fast growing tree with a maturity height of 10 meters 33 feet. It is adaptable to almost any soil environment, including infertile soils.
It is tolerant to salt spray and water logging. It can tolerate drought for up to 6 to 8 months. This tree can be potentially weedy, but rarely causes a problem. Army worms, cabbage lopper, case worm, tobacco budworm, whorl maggots are examples of farm insects. Insects are the largest single group of animals in the world.
Aboutdifferent kinds of insects are known, and more are being discovered every year. Human kind fights a constant battle against harmful insects.
We do this in a number of ways. One of this is by the use of insecticide sprays An insecticide is a chemical that kills insects. Pesticides work on a variety of ways. Some pesticides poison the pests and stop basic life processes, such as ability to breathe.Read more. I live in southwestern Louisiana, where because of the abundance of water and the warm climate, mosquitoes are active year-round.
Insecticidal Properties of Lemon Grass
All over the world, people are at risk from mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile virus, and several forms of encephalitis GublerMonath Personal protection from mosquito bites is currently the most important way to prevent transmission of these diseases Fradin Throughout the world, there are about 3, species of mosquitoes.
The female mosquito bites people and animals because they need the protein found in blood to help develop their eggs. Mosquitoes are attracted to people by skin odors and the carbon dioxide from breath Bowen The use of repellents makes a person unattractive for feeding and therefore repels the mosquito Maibach et al. The most common mosquito-repellent formulations available on the market contain a synthetic chemical called N, N-diethylmethylbenzamide DEET.
It was developed and patented by the U. Army in for use by military personnel in insect-infested areas. DEET was recognized as one of the few products effective against mosquitoes and biting flies. It was registered for use by the general public in the U. The efficacy of DEET in providing long-lasting protection against a wide variety of mosquito species has been documented in several studies that have shown excellent repellency against mosquitoes.
Although DEET is an effective repellent against mosquitoes, there are concerns associated with its use. It is irritating to mucous membranes, and concentrated formulations dissolve plastic. Some human toxicity effects have been reported after applications of DEET, varying from mild to severe Briassoulis et al. Because of these undesirable side effects, research on repellents derived from plant extracts is needed to find alternatives that would be safer but still effective.
The repellent properties of plants to mosquitoes and other pest insects were well known before the use of synthetic chemicals. Traditionally, people used natural compounds to protect themselves against insect bites. A review by Sukumar highlighted the potential of plants for use in mosquito control, either as repellents, larvicides, or insecticides.
Extracts of several plants—neem Azadirachta indicabasil Ocimum basilicumMentha piperataand lemon eucalyptus Corymbia citriodora —have been studied as possible mosquito repellents and have demonstrated good efficacy against some mosquito species Sharma et al. The research is promising, but the number of plants that has been extensively studied is relatively small. Plants contain a wide range of chemical compounds. When extracted from the plant material, these compounds show useful biological activities such as repelling insects or altering insect feeding behavior, killing larvae, or disrupting growth Duke The plant grows in any well-cultivated site, even in poor dry soil.
This plant produces clusters of fragrant orange-yellow flowers, and the leaves have an aroma similar to fennel. The leaves are used locally in Africa and India to repel blowflies and safari ants Scholtz and Holm The active compounds in the plant which act as antifeedants are alpha-pinene, limonene, and borneol.
Borneol is also a component of many essential oils and is a natural insect repellent.Botany Makabuhay is a climbing, dioecious vine reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Stems are up to 1 centimeter thick and somewhat fleshy, with scattered protuberances.
Leaves are thin, ovate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, and 7 to 12 centimeters wide, with pointed and truncate or somewhat heart-shaped based, smooth and shining.
Petioles are 3. Racemes are solitary or in pairs arising from axils of fallen leaves, pale green, slender, 10 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are pale green and short pedicelled.
Fruit is 8 millimeters long, in long clusters. Additional info - Classified in Ayurvedic medicine as a rasayana herb, meaning "circulation of the nutrient" in Sanskrit, considered to enhance longevity, promote intelligence and prevent disease. Support needed for climbing. Distribution - In and nearby towns in thickets, in most or all islands of the Philippines. Also contains a amorphous bitter principle, picroretine and traces of berberine. Later studies failed to confirm these.8 All-Natural Ways to Keep Mosquitoes Away
Properties - Considered febrifuge, vulnerary, tonic, antimalarial, parasiticide, and insecticidal. Parts utilized Stems and leaves. Decoction of stem used as vulnerary for itches, ordinary and cancerous wounds. Cut gms of the vine in small pieces, mix with 3 ounces of coconut oil. Place in bottle and "cook" under the sun for days. Also, stems are dried, thinly sliced, decocted, then drank. The bitter juice of the stem is applied to the nipple area causing the infant's aversion to breast-feeding and facilitating transfer to breast feeding.
Also, used for treatment of malaria. Infusion of stem drunk as vermifuge. Decoction of stem used to wash aching eyes and syphilitic sores. Crush leaves applied to wound and made into dressing for itches.
In Indonesia, used for treatment of diabetes, hypertension and backache. In Bangladeshjuice from macerated stems used used for prevention of intestinal disorders.
New applications - Being studied for it possible stimulant effect on the immune system. Anecdotal benefits for a variety of HIV-related complaints. Remove the stems then add half a glass of grated white candle wax. When the wax is melted, pour into clean bottle and label. Use the ointment over the whole body, save the face area, for three consecutive nights. Caution Should not be used by pregnant women.
Some caution use by patients with cardiac disorders. The study used the supplement Tinofend mg three times a day. Makabuhay in the Treatment of Scabies: The study established the acaricidal property of Tinospora rumphii. A concomitant antimicrobial action could not be ruled out. B2 was found to have antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and T.Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc.
Under the Integrated Mosquito Management IMMemphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health.
Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes.
In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed.
Mosquitoes can transmit more diseases than any other group of arthropods and affect million of people throughout the world. Mosquito borne diseases are prevalent in more than countries across the world, infecting overpeople every year globally and 40, of the Indian population. They act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile virus infection, etc.
To prevent proliferation of mosquito borne diseases and to improve quality of environment and public health, mosquito control is essential.
The major tool in mosquito control operation is the application of synthetic insecticides such as organochlorine and organophosphate compounds. But this has not been very successful due to human, technical, operational, ecological, and economic factors. In recent years, use of many of the former synthetic insecticides in mosquito control programme has been limited. It is due to lack of novel insecticides, high cost of synthetic insecticides, concern for environmental sustainability, harmful effect on human health, and other non-target populations, their non biodegradable nature, higher rate of biological magnification through ecosystem, and increasing insecticide resistance on a global scale 23.
Thus, the Environmental Protection Act in has framed a number of rules and regulations to check the application of chemical control agents in nature 4. It has prompted researchers to look for alternative approaches ranging from provision of or promoting the adoption of effective and transparent mosquito management strategies that focus on public education, monitoring and surveillance, source reduction and environment friendly least-toxic larval control.
These factors have resulted in an urge to look for environment friendly, cost-effective, biodegradable and target specific insecticides against mosquito species. Considering these, the application of eco-friedly alternatives such as biological control of vectors has become the central focus of the control programmme in lieu of the chemical insecticides.
One of the most effective alternative approaches under the biological control programme is to explore the floral biodiversity and enter the field of using safer insecticides of botanical origin as a simple and sustainable method of mosquito control. Further, unlike conventional insecticides which are based on a single active ingredient, plant derived insecticides comprise botanical blends of chemical compounds which act concertedly on both behavourial and physiological processes.
Thus there is very little chance of pests developing resistance to such substances. Identifying bio-insecticides that are efficient, as well as being suitable and adaptive to ecological conditions, is imperative for continued effective vector control management.
Botanicals have widespread insecticidal properties and will obviously work as a new weapon in the arsenal of synthetic insecticides and in future may act as suitable alternative product to fight against mosquito borne diseases. Roark 5 described approximately 1, plant species having potential insecticidal value, while Sukumar et al 6 listed and discussed plant species that only exhibited mosquitocidal activity. Shallan et al in 7 reviewed the current state of knowledge on larvicidal plant species, extraction processes, growth and reproduction inhibiting phytochemicals, botanical ovicides, synergistic, additive and antagonistic joint action effects of mixtures, residual capacity, effects on non-target organisms, resistance and screening methodologies, and discussed some promising advances made in phytochemical research.
Table I summarized the mosquitocidal activities of various herbal products from edible crops, ornamental plants, trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses and marine plants according to the exaction procedure developed in eleven different solvent systems and the nature of mosquitocidal activities against different life stages of different vector species as a ready reference for further studies.
Phytochemicals are botanicals which are naturally occurring insecticides obtained from floral resources. Applications of phytochemicals in mosquito control were in use since the s 8but the discovery of synthetic insecticides such as DDT in side tracked the application of phytochemicals in mosquito control programme. After facing several problems due to injudicious and over application of synthetic insecticides in nature, re-focus on phytochemicals that are easily biodegradable and have no ill-effects on non-target organisms was appreciated.
Since then, the search for new bioactive compounds from the plant kingdom and an effort to determine its structure and commercial production has been initiated.
At present phytochemicals make upto 1 per cent of world's pesticide market 9. Botanicals are basically secondary metabolites that serve as a means of defence mechanism of the plants to withstand the continuous selection pressure from herbivore predators and other environmental factors. Several groups of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, essential oils and phenolics from different plants have been reported previously for their insecticidal activities 7.Please join StudyMode to read the full document.
All these set against the backdrop of lush environs, dramatic floral landscapes, breathtaking scenery, year-round cool climate, and wonderfully idyllic atmosphere of Tagaytay City.
A mere minute drive from the capital city of Manila, Tagaytay is a popular Philippine summer destination. Executive travelers, meanwhile, can leave their worries behind, the hotel offers business services that keep them connected.
The hotel offers guests 52 well-appointed and elegantly furnished rooms. Each room — whether Standard, Superior, or Deluxe — features excellent amenities to make your stay truly comfortable. From the outdoor pool to the man-made lagoon, the nature-inspired facilities of Hotel Kimberly Tagaytay will let leisure travelers bask in lush, verdant beauty.
Business guests, on the other hand, will enjoy the convenience of its function rooms and its many services II. Strengths and Weaknesses Hotel kimberly is very elegant 4 star hotel. The ambiance was good and the amenities is There so many popular business restaurant in the industry.
A concept in this market after the main consideration relatively, identifying the market location is the most important consideration on the top of the business plan. It is important to find location that has no same business near convenient parting and it is necessary to revisit the business plan to make sure you are close to your target market.
The major reason for this study is the writers own interest to set up an own restaurant business. Everything starts with the desire to be more than you are today; a highly coveted brand, a fiercely dominant player, a more profitable entity, a better and more stimulating place to work.
What will be your legacy and how will you arrive there? Efforts of massive change, it turns out, do not have to be massively painful processes.
Done correctly, they can be accomplished through easy-to-understand actions - each triggering another set of actions - eventually evoking holistic change through an entire company that can send sales and profits rocketing upward.
Every business deserves and demands a thoughtfully constructed plan for growing sales and profits - a restaurant marketing Business Long-Term Objectives: Lami catering service looks forward to be the most competitive catering service in Tunasan and nearby towns of Muntinlupa. The proponent dreams of making profit and staying long in the business.
For operating and establishing Lami Catering, we are having some objectives: To provide catering and event management services, that has not been experienced in the industry at affordable rates. To become the premier choice for corporate and government events, for event planning and brandling. To incorporate event management research and development functions in the company in the first five years.
To achieve consistently a return on investment superior to all others to provide the basis for the long term capital growth To be a company admired for its values, and standards to all our clients.
Highlight of the Business: History: We choose the catering as our business because we want to share with you the experience of healthy and delicious food. We specialize in working with our discerning clients to create elegant and memorable experiences. Technology and system feasibility The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements, to determine whether the company has the technical expertise to handle completion of the project.Read more.
Every year my family and I wage a constant war for homegrown fruits and vegetables. We weed-whack, fence, and cover our plants to keep them from rabbits and deer. However, the killers we cannot evade are insects. Which begs the question: Do we want organic produce or plentiful produce? This question inspired my science project theme: Can insecticides be created out of natural substances? Organic, plant-based pesticides that rely on plants' natural defenses against insects may not only be effective and inexpensive for protecting crops, but also safer and more environmentally friendly.
Agricultural crops are under constant assault by insect pests, making insecticides essential to reduce losses. Synthetic insecticides such as organophosphates are important, effective tools in modern crop management.
However, they pose serious threats to the environment and to people. Humans come in contact with dangerous pesticides on food, in water and in the air near farms. This "pesticide drift" occurs when pesticide dust and spray travel by wind to places unexposed to pesticides. Almost 98 percent of sprayed pesticides do not reach their targets. They penetrate to groundwater, pollute streams and harm wildlife, including natural predators of the targeted pests.
Older pesticides such as DDT killed bald eagles, birds, fish and even people Carson. Many farmers will not use synthetic pesticides, and some consumers will only buy organic produce. Mass production farms rely on synthetic pesticides, however, because they are cheaper than organic ones. When farmers used pesticides such as DDT and malathion, there was little understanding of how dangerous and long-lasting these chemicals are.
It was only later that the degree to which these pesticides remain in the environment was discovered Carson. Organophosphates designed to affect the brain and nervous system of insects, sometimes damage those of humans and animals. Many plant species produce substances that protect them by killing or repelling the insects that feed on them. For example, the Douglas fir has a special sap that wards off beetles if it is attacked.
Neem trees produce oil that alters the hormones of bugs so that they cannot fly, breed or eat National Academy of Sciences It is possible to create effective, natural insecticides from these substances to protect crops that, unlike wild plants, may have lost their capability through cultivation to cope with pests. Natural pesticides have many advantages over synthetic ones and may be more cost-effective as a whole, considering the environmental cost of chemical alternatives.
Natural pesticides are biodegradable, barely leave residues in the soil and are less likely to harm humans or animals. In addition, they are cheaper and more accessible in less developed countries.
Farms provide food for people and increase pest populations.